This is the web server of Dr. Julia Richard's glaucoma research lab at the Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Principle Investigator

Dr. Julia Richards

Dr. Julia Richards

The research program of Dr. Julia Richards, PhD focuses on the underlying causes of hereditary eye disease and the normal processes of ocular aging. Her research has a long-term emphasis on the group of diseases classified as glaucoma, one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness in the United States. Several recent breakthroughs in gene mapping and identification of disease genes, disease risk factors, and risk factors associated with endophenotypes, have resulted from her collaborations with glaucoma specialists Paul R. Lichter, MD, Sayoko Moroi, MD, PhD, and Joshua Stein, MD, MS, and biostatistical geneticists Michael Boehnke, PhD, and Jun Li, PhD, and researchers at other institutions including Stanford, University of Oklahoma, and UCSF. Over the years she has collaborated with researchers from Ghana, Peru, Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently has expanded her international collaborations through interaction with the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium. She contributed three of the twelve populations in the ten-center NEIGHBOR genome-wide association study (GWAS) that has led to breakthroughs in identification of common SNPs associated with open-angle glaucoma its endophenotypes as well as novel pathways associated with glaucoma.

Her work on characterizing specific glaucoma genes and their role in glaucoma and related phenomena is paralleled by efforts to better understand the clinical characteristics associated with particular genes and mutations. Studies at the level of genes, cells, animals and people all assist in our efforts to sort through the underlying causes of the hereditary glaucomas and evaluate the relationships between the glaucomas and a variety of abnormal developmental processes, both ocular and non-ocular. Linkage analysis, genome wide association studies, whole exome sequencing, expression profiling all contribute to our search for the underlying causes of inherited eye disease.

Research Publications and Presentations

Dr. Julia Richards Bibliography

Representative List of Publications

Below you will find links to a selection of representative publications and presentations produced by the researchers and staff in Dr. Julia Richards lab here at the Kellogg Eye Center:


Current Lab Members

Current Administration

Past Lab Members

Past Administration


Software Publications and Presentations



Madeline Madeline

Madeline is a program written by Ed Trager for preparing, visualizing, and exploring human pedigree data used in genetic linkage studies. Madeline converts pedigree and marker data into formats required by popular linkage analysis packages, provides powerful ways to query pedigree data sets, and produces Postscript pedigree drawings that are useful for rapid data review. We are pleased to release Madeline under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

Madeline 2.0 Pedigree Drawing Engine

Older Versions of Madeline Madeline

The stable version (v. 0.935) now detects simple Mendelian inheritance inconsistencies, provides publication-quality multipoint LOD score plotting based on the output from programs like Simwalk2, and features many other improvements.

Madeline v. 0.936 BETA VERSION FOR TESTING DATED 2004.11.04

This new version of Madeline is a bug fix release with some significant improvements as well. Requires a modern, standards-compliant C++ compiler with a good STL implementation such as GNU GCC version 3.3 or better. New features include:

Despite these improvements, please note that this version is still considered a beta version for testing until we have been able to test it more extensively. For documentation, please refer to version 0.935 below.

Download Madeline 0.936 Beta

Madeline v. 0.935

This is the stable version. It features numerous improvements over v. 0.933.

Download Madeline 0.935 Stable Version

Old Version: Madeline v. 0.933

This is the old version which is still available for download by the internet public at large.

Download Madeline 0.933 Old Version


Shuffle is a utility written by Ed Trager in optimized C++ to randomly shuffle a DNA sequence any number of times. The program uses a high-quality portable random number generator presented in Press et al.'s Numerical Recipes in C with a period greater than 2 x 1018. In addition, the program obtains seeds for the random number generator from an entropy pool present on the compute server.

Gt Escherian Quartic Cube

Gt is an X11 text file and non-blocking process output viewer written by Ed Trager. It can be used with Madeline for viewing log files and process output. Gt may be included as part of the Madeline v. 0.935 distribution. Requires GTK+ 1.2 libraries.

Edith Edith Logo

Edith is a professional X11 editor for UNIX and Linux platforms written by Annius V. Groenink that has some particularly nice features for manipulating columns, highlighting multiple items of data, searching using regular expressions, and other features that are extremely useful for editing data files. Compared to an editor like vi, Edith has a much easier learning curve, but still has a fairly extensive set of powerful features useful for advanced data manipulation.

This editor does not originate from our lab here, but we like it a lot and highly recommend that you use this program as the editor to use with Madeline.

The Gladiator Project

Gladiator Gladiator

Gladiator is a new web-based clinical and genetics data entry system being developed by Ed Trager and Ritu Khanna for joint use in the research labs of Dr. Anand Swaroop and Dr. Julia Richards here at the Kellogg Eye Center. Although initially designed for use in these two labs, our long-term goal is to make Gladiator useful for managing the clinical and genetics data for eye disease studies in general.


Unicode Primer

Unicode solves the problem of multiple computer encodings for all of the world's scripts, scientific, and mathematical symbols by assigning unique code points in a code space that is much larger than what extended ASCII could accomodate. If your work requires that you reach a global audience in one capacity or another, then you'll want to know about Unicode!

A Quick Primer On Unicode and Software Internationalization Under Linux and UNIX

Unicode Font Guide for Free/Libre Open Source Operating Systems

As Linux and the Open Source philosophy and technologies upon which Linux is based have begun to penetrate new markets world wide, numerous governmental, non-governmental, commercial, and private organizations have been collaborating to provide high-quality Unicode-based fonts to support native language computing. The following is a selective guide to Unicode-based fonts arranged geographically and by script. While ideal for use on free/libre Open Source operating systems, these fonts can also be used on Windows and Mac OSX platforms. This resource is now on unifont.org:

Unicode Font Guide for Free/Libre Open Source Operating Systems

LASi Postscript Printing Engine Project

LASi is a library written by Larry Siden that provides a C++ stream output interface ( with operator << ) for creating Postscript documents that can contain characters from any of the scripts and symbol blocks supported in Unicode and by Owen Taylor's Pango layout engine. The library accomodates right-to-left scripts such as Arabic and Hebrew as easily as left-to-right scripts. Indic and Indic-derived Complex Text Layout (CTL) scripts, such as Devanagari, Thai, Lao, and Tibetan are supported to the extent provided by Pango and by the OpenType fonts installed on your system. All of this is provided without need for any special configuration or layout calculation on the programmer's part. LASi is now being maintained by Ed Trager and Ritu Khanna here at the Kellogg Eye Center.

LASi Documentation Download LASi 1.0.4

Uv Editor

Uv (Uniview) is a lightweight text editor that supports UTF-8 unicode, and provides a small set of advanced text and file manipulation abilities. We decided to start writing Uv after realizing that we were using multiple different text editors, each for different purposes, because no one text editor provided all the features we required.

Uv Documentation uv-1.0.tar.gz

Documentation and Links

Quality Control in the Linkage Analysis Data Pipeline

In February of 2003, Ed Trager gave a talk to a group of graduate training grant recipients from the Department of Biostatistics on quality control issues and solutions for preparing linkage data for statistical analysis. This link will take you to the slides used in that presentation.

Quality Control in the Linkage Analysis Data Pipeline

Richards Lab Bioinformatics Software Documentation

These are links to the documentation distributed with various packages that are available on our servers:

Unix Tutorials

Sooner or later, researchers in the life sciences often need to move beyond the limited world of computing on a standard Windows PC and tackle the initially daunting, but in the long run rewarding, world of Unix-based computing.

The following link from the Electronic Engineering Department at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, is a highly recommended "how to" resource that will help you come up to speed on UNIX quickly:

UNIX Tutorial for Beginners

Our link below will provide you with a conceptual overview, as well as in-depth coverage of some of the more important tools that you will need to know to work in a modern, secure UNIX-based computing environment:

Richlab UNIX-based Computing Resources Tutorial

The above tutorial includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:

The following link provides baseline instructions for using Phred, Phrap, and Polyphred in the Richlab Unix computing environment:

Phred/Phrap/Polyphred Instructions (PDF)